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Having explained the true doctrine of the corruption of man and his conversion to God, Synod rejects the following errors:


Error: Properly speaking, it cannot be said that original sin as such is sufficient to condemn the whole human race or to deserve temporal and eternal punishment.

Refutation: This contradicts the words of the apostle when he declares: sin entered the world

through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all men, because all sinned (Rom 5:12). And: The judgment followed one sin and brought condemnation (Rom 5:16). Also: For the wages of sin is death (Rom 6:23).


Error: The spiritual gifts or the good qualities and virtues, such as goodness, holiness, righteousness, cannot have belonged to the will of man when he was first created, and therefore cannot have been separated from his will when he fell.

Refutation: This error is contrary to the description of the image of God which the apostle gives4:24, when he connects it with righteousness and holiness, which undoubtedly belong to the will.1

1 Eph 4:24.


Error: In spiritual death the spiritual gifts are not separate from the will of man, since the will as such has never been corrupted but only hampered by the darkness of the mind and the unruliness of the passions. If these hindrances have been removed, the will can exert its full innate power. The will is of itself able to will and to choose, or else not to will and not to choose, all manner of good which may be presented to it.

Refutation: This is an innovation and an error, and tends to extol the powers of the free will, contrary to what the prophet Jeremiah states, The heart is deceitful above all things and beyond cure (Jer 17:9). And the apostle Paul writes: All of us also lived among them (the sons of disobedience) at one time, gratifying the cravings of our sinful natures and following its desires and thoughts (Eph 2:3).


Error: The unregenerate man is not really or totally dead in sins, or deprived of all powers unto spiritual good. He can yet hunger and thirst after righteousness and life, and offer the sacrifice of a contrite and broken spirit which is pleasing to God.

Refutation: These things are in conflict with the clear testimonies of Scripture: you were dead in your transgressions and sins (Eph 2:1, cf. 2:5). And every inclination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil all the time, (Gen 6:5 and 8:21). Moreover, only the regenerate and those who are called blessed hunger and thirst after deliverance from misery and after life, and offer to God the sacrifice of a broken spirit.1

1 Ps 51:19; Mt 5:6.


Error: The corrupt and natural man can so well use the common grace (which for the Arminians is the light of nature), or the gifts still left him after the fall, that he can gradually gain by their good use a greater, that is, the evangelical or saving grace, and salvation itself. In this way God on His part shows Himself ready to reveal Christ to all men, since He administers to all sufficiently and efficaciously the means necessary for the knowledge of Christ, for faith and repentance.

Refutation: Not only the experience of all ages but also Scripture testifies that this is untrue.

He has revealed his word to Jacob, His laws and decrees to Israel. He has done this for no other nation; they do not know His laws (Ps 147:19, 20). In the past, He let all nations go their own way (Acts 14:16). And Paul and his companions were kept by the Holy Spirit from preaching the word in the province of Asia. When they came to the border of Mysia, they tried to enter Bithynia, but the Spirit of Jesus would not allow them to (Acts 16:6, 7).


Error: In the true conversion of man no new qualities, powers, or gifts can be infused by God into the will. Therefore faith, through which we are first converted and because of which we are called believers, is not a quality or gift infused by God but only an act of man. It cannot be called a gift except with respect to the power to attain to this faith.

Refutation: This teaching contradicts the Holy Scriptures, which declare that God infuses new qualities of faith, of obedience, and of the consciousness of His love into our hearts: I will put My law in their minds and write it on their hearts (Jer 31:33). And: I will pour water on the thirsty land, and streams on the dry ground (Is 44:3). And: God has poured out His love into our hearts by the Holy Spirit, whom He has given us (Rom 5:5). This also conflicts with the constant practice of the church, which prays by the mouth of the prophet: Restore me, and I will return, because You are the LORD my God (Jer 31:18).


Error: The grace whereby we are converted to God is only a gentle advising. This manner of working which consists in advising is the most noble manner in the conversion of man and is most in harmony with man’s nature. There is no reason why this advising grace alone should

not be sufficient to make the natural man spiritual. Indeed, God does not bring about the consent of the will except through this moral persuasion. The power of the divine working surpasses the working of Satan, in that God promises eternal while Satan promises only temporal goods.

Refutation: This is entirely Pelagian and contrary to the whole Scripture, which teaches beyond this moral persuasion yet another, far more powerful and divine manner of the working of the Holy Spirit in the conversion of man: I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit in you; I will remove from you your heart of stone and give you a heart of flesh (Ezek 36:26).


Error: In regenerating man God does not use the powers of His omnipotence so as to forcefully and unfailingly bend man’s will to faith and conversion. Even if all the works of grace have been accomplished which God employs to convert man and even if God intends his regeneration and wills to regenerate him, man may yet so resist God and the Holy Spirit, and indeed often does so resist, that he entirely prevents his regeneration. It therefore remains in man’s power to be regenerated or not.

Refutation: This is nothing less than the denial of all the efficacy of God’s grace in our conversion, and the subjecting of the working of Almighty God to the will of man. It is contrary to the apostles, who teach His incomparably great power for us who believe (Eph 1:19); who pray our God that by His power He may fulfill every good purpose of yours and every act prompted by your faith (2 Thess 1:11), and who declare that His divine power has given us everything we need for life and godliness (2 Pet 1:3).


Error: Grace and free will are partial causes which together work the beginning of conversion. In the order of these causes grace does not precede the working of the will. God does not effectually help the will of man to come to conversion until the will of man moves itself and determines to do this.

Refutation: The early church long ago condemned this doctrine of the Pelagians according to the words of the apostle: It does not, therefore, depend on man's desire or effort, but on God's mercy (Rom 9:16). Also: For who makes you different from anyone else? What do you have that you did not receive? (1 Cor 4:7). And: it is God who works in you to will and to act according to His good purpose (Phil 2:13).





Those whom God according to His purpose calls into the fellowship of His Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, and regenerates by His Holy Spirit, He certainly sets free from the dominion and slavery of sin,1 but not entirely in this life from the flesh and the body of sin.2

1 Jn 8:34; Rom 6:17.

2 Rom 7:21-24.



Therefore daily sins of weakness spring up and defects cling to even the best works of the saints.1 These are for them a constant reason to humble themselves before God, to flee to the crucified Christ, to put the flesh to death more and more through the Spirit of prayer and by holy exercises of godliness,2 and to long and strive for the goal of perfection until at last,3 delivered from this body of death, they reign with the Lamb of God in heaven.4

1 1 Jn 1:8.

2 Col 3:5.

3 1 Tim 4:7; Phil 3:12, 14.

4 Rev 5:6, 10.



Because of these remnants of indwelling sin and also because of the temptations of the world and of Satan, those who have been converted could not remain standing in that grace if left to their own strength.1 But God is faithful, who mercifully confirms them in the grace once conferred upon them and powerfully preserves them in that grace to the end.2

1 Rom 7:20;

2 1 Cor 10:13; 1 Pet 1:5.



Although the power of God whereby He confirms and preserves true believers in grace is so great1 that it cannot be conquered by the flesh, yet the converted are not always so led and moved by God that they cannot in certain particular actions turn aside through their own fault from the guidance of grace and be seduced by and yield to the lusts of the flesh. They must therefore constantly watch and pray that they may not be led into temptation.2 When they do not watch and pray,3 they not only can be drawn away by the flesh, the world, and Satan into serious and atrocious sins, but with the righteous permission of God are sometimes actually drawn away. The lamentable fall of David, Peter, and other saints, described in Holy Scripture, demonstrates this.4

1 Eph 1:19.

2 Mt 26:41.

3 1 Thess 5:6, 17.

4 2 Sam 11; Mt 26.



By such gross sins, however, they greatly offend God, incur the guilt of death, grieve the Holy Spirit, suspend the exercise of faith, severely wound their consciences, and sometimes for a while lose the sense of God’s favour1 – until they return to the right way through sincere repentance and God’s fatherly face again shines upon them.2

1 2 Sam 12; Eph 4:30.

2 Ps 32:3-5; Num 6:25.



For God, who is rich in mercy,1 according to the unchangeable purpose of His election,2 does not completely withdraw His Holy Spirit from His own even in their deplorable fall.3

Neither does He permit them to sink so deep that they fall away from the grace of adoption and the state of justification,4 or commit the sin unto death5 or the sin against the Holy Spirit6 and, totally deserted by Him, plunge themselves into eternal ruin.

1 Eph 2:4,5

2 Eph 1:11.

3 Ps 51:13.

4 Gal 4:5.

5 1 Jn 5:16-18.

6 Mt 12:31-32.



For in the first place, in their fall, He preserves in them His imperishable seed of regeneration, so that it does not perish and is not cast out.1 Further, through His Word and Spirit He certainly and effectually renews them to repentance.2 As a result they grieve from the heart with a godly sorrow for the sins they have committed;3 they seek and obtain through faith with a contrite heart forgiveness in the blood of the Mediator; they again experience the favour of a reconciled God and adore His mercies and faithfulness.4 And from now on they more diligently work out their own salvation with fear and trembling.5

1 1 Pet 1:23.

2 1 Jn 3:9.

3 2 Cor 7:10.

4 Ps 32:5; 51:19.

5 Phil 2:12.



So it is not through their own merits or strength but through the undeserved mercy of God that they neither totally fall away from faith and grace nor remain in their downfall and are finally lost. With respect to themselves this could not only easily happen but would undoubtedly happen. But with respect to God this cannot possibly happen, since His counsel cannot be changed,1 His promise cannot fail, the calling according to His purpose cannot be revoked,2 the merit, intercession, and preservation of Christ cannot be nullified,3 and the sealing of the Holy Spirit can neither be frustrated nor destroyed.4

1 Ps 33:11.

2 Heb 6:17; Rom 8:30,34; 9:11.

3 Lk 22:32.

4 Eph 1:13.



Believers themselves can be certain of this preservation of the elect to salvation and the perseverance of true believers in the faith.1 And they are indeed certain according to the measure of their faith,2 by which they firmly believe that they are and always shall remain true and living members of the church, and that they have forgiveness of sins and life eternal.3

1 Rom 8:31-39.

2 2 Tim 4:8.

3 2 Tim 4:18.



This assurance is not produced by a certain private revelation besides or outside the Word, but by faith in the promises of God, which He has most abundantly revealed in His Word for our comfort; by the testimony of the Holy Spirit, witnessing with our spirit that we are children and heirs of God;1 and, finally, by the serious and holy pursuit of a clear conscience2 and of good works. And if the elect of God did not have in this world the solid comfort of obtaining the victory3 and this unfailing pledge of eternal glory, they would be of all men the most miserable.4

1 Rom 8:16-17; 1 Jn 3:1-2.

2 Acts 24:16.

3 Rom 8:37.

4 1 Cor 15:19.



Scripture meanwhile testifies that believers in this life have to struggle with various doubts of the flesh and, placed under severe temptation, do not always feel this full assurance of faith and certainty of perseverance. But God, the Father of all comfort,1 will not let them be tempted beyond their strength, but with the temptation will also provide the way of escape, and by the Holy Spirit will again revive in them the certainty of perseverance.2

1 2 Cor 1:3.

2 1 Cor 10:13.



This certainty of perseverance, however, so far from making true believers proud and complacent, is rather the true root of humility, childlike reverence,1 genuine godliness, endurance in every struggle, fervent prayers, constancy in suffering and in the confession of the truth, and lasting joy in God.2 Further, the consideration of this benefit is for them an incentive to the serious and constant practice of gratitude and good works,3 as is evident from the testimonies of Scripture and the examples of the saints.

1 Rom 12:1.

2 Ps 56:12-13.

3 Ps 116:12; Tit 2:11-14;1 Jn 3:3.



Neither does this renewed confidence produce carelessness or neglect of godliness in those who have been restored after their fall;1 rather, it produces in them a much greater concern to observe carefully the ways of the Lord, which He prepared beforehand.2 They observe these ways in order that by walking in them they may retain the certainty of their perseverance. Then shall the face of their gracious God not turn away from them again3 because of their abuse of His fatherly goodness, with the result that they would fall into still greater anguish of spirit. Indeed, to those who fear God the contemplation of His face is sweeter than life, but its withdrawal is more bitter than death.4

1 2 Cor 7:10.

2 Eph 2:10.

3 Ps 63:4; Is 64:7.

4 Jer 33:5.



Just as it has pleased God to begin this work of grace in us by the preaching of the gospel, so He maintains, continues, and perfects it by the hearing and reading of His Word,1 by meditation on it, by its exhortations, threats, and promises,2 and by the use of the sacraments.3

1 Deut 6:20-25.

2 2 Tim 3:16-17.

3 Acts 2:42.



This doctrine of the perseverance of true believers and saints, and of their assurance of it,1 God has most abundantly revealed in His Word for the glory of His Name and for the consolation of the godly, and He impresses it on the hearts of believers. It is something which the flesh does not understand, Satan hates, the world ridicules, the ignorant and the hypocrites abuse, and the heretics attack. The Bride of Christ, on the other hand, has always loved this doctrine most tenderly and defended it steadfastly as a treasure of inestimable value;2 and God, against whom no counsel can avail and no strength can prevail,3 shall see to it that she will continue to do so. To this God alone, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, be honour and glory forever.4 Amen.

1 Rev 14:12.

2 Eph 5:32.

3 Ps 33:10-11.

4 1 Pet 5:10-11.


Having explained the true doctrine of the perseverance of the saints, Synod rejects the following errors:


Error: The perseverance of the true believers is not a fruit of election or a gift of God obtained by the death of Christ, but a condition of the new covenant, which man before his so- called decisive election and justification must fulfil through his free will.

Refutation: Holy Scripture testifies that perseverance follows from election and is given to the elect by virtue of the death, resurrection, and intercession of Christ: The elect obtained it. The others were hardened (Rom 11:7). Also: He who did not spare His own Son, but gave Him

up for us all — how will He not also, along with Him, graciously give us all things? Who will bring any charge against those whom God has chosen? It is God who justifies. Who is he that condemns? Christ Jesus, who died — more than that, who was raised to life — is at the right hand of God and is also interceding for us. Who shall separate us from the love of Christ?

(Rom 8:32-35).


Error: God does indeed provide the believer with sufficient strength to persevere, and is ready to preserve this in him if he will do his duty. But even with all those things in place which are necessary to persevere in faith and which God will use to preserve faith, it still always depends on the decision of man’s will whether he will persevere or not.

Refutation: This idea contains outright Pelagianism. While it wants to make men free, it makes them robbers of God’s honour. It conflicts with the consistent teaching of the gospel, which takes from man all cause for boasting, and ascribes all the praise for this benefit to the grace of God alone. It is also contrary to the testimony of the apostle: It is God who will keep you strong to the end, so that you will be blameless on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ, (1 Cor 1:8).


Error: True regenerate believers not only can fall completely and definitely from justifying faith and also from grace and salvation, but indeed they often do fall from them and are lost forever.

Refutation: This opinion nullifies the grace of justification and regeneration and the continuous preservation by Christ, contrary to the clear words of the apostle Paul: God

demonstrates His own love for us in this: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us. Since we have now been justified by His blood, how much more shall we be saved from God's wrath

through Him! (Rom 5:8, 9). And contrary to the apostle John: No one who is born of God will

continue to sin, because God's seed remains in him; he cannot go on sinning, because he has been born of God (1 Jn 3:9), and also to the words of Jesus Christ: I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; no one can snatch them out of My hand. My Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all; no one can snatch them out of My Father's hand (Jn 10:28, 29).


Error: True regenerate believers can commit the sin that leads to death or the sin against the Holy Spirit.

Refutation: The same apostle John, after speaking of those who commit the sin that leads to death and forbidding prayer for them, immediately adds: We know that anyone born of God does not continue to sin (namely, with that kind of sin); the One who was born of God keeps him safe, and the evil one cannot harm him (1 Jn 5:16-17).


Error: Without a special revelation we can have no certainty of future perseverance in this life.

Refutation: By this doctrine the sure comfort of true believers in this life is taken away, and the doubting of the followers of the pope is again introduced into the church. The Holy Scriptures, however, always deduce this assurance, not from a special and extraordinary revelation, but from the marks peculiar to the children of God and from the very constant promises of God. So especially the apostle Paul declares that nothing in all creation will be able to separate us from the love of God that is in Christ Jesus our Lord (Rom 8:39). And John writes: Those who obey His commands live in Him, and He in them. And this is how we know that He lives in us: We know it by the Spirit He gave us (1 Jn 3:24).


Error: By its very nature the doctrine of the certainty of perseverance and salvation causes false security and is harmful to godliness, good morals, prayers, and other holy exercises. On the contrary, it is praiseworthy to doubt.

Refutation: This error ignores the effective power of God’s grace and the working of the Holy Spirit who dwells in us. It contradicts the apostle John, who teaches the opposite with these clear words: Dear friends, now we are children of God, and what we will be has not yet

been made known. But we know that when he appears, we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is. Everyone who has this hope in him purifies himself, just as he is pure (1 Jn 3:2,

3). Furthermore, it is refuted by the example of the saints in both the Old and the New Testament who, although they were certain of their perseverance and salvation, nevertheless continued in prayer and other exercises of godliness.


Error: The faith of those who believe for a time does not differ from justifying and saving faith except with respect to its duration.

Refutation: In Mt 13:20-23 and Luke 8:13-15 Christ Himself clearly indicates, besides this duration, a threefold difference between those who believe only for a time and true believers. He declares that the former receive the seed on rocky ground, but the latter in good soil, or in a good heart; that the former are without root, but the latter have a firm root; and that the former are without fruit, but the latter bring forth fruit in varying measure, constantly and steadfastly.


Error: It is not absurd that one, having lost his first regeneration, is again and even often born anew.

Refutation: This doctrine denies that the seed of God, by which we are born again, is imperishable, contrary to the testimony of the apostle Peter: You have been born again, not of

perishable seed, but of imperishable (1 Pet 1:23).


Error: Christ did not pray anywhere that believers should unfailingly continue in faith.

Refutation: This contradicts Christ Himself, who says: I have prayed for you, Simon, that your faith may not fail (Luke 22:32). It also contradicts the apostle John, who declares that Christ did not pray only for the apostles, but also for all who would believe through their word: Holy Father, protect them by the power of Your name, and, My prayer is not that You take them out of the world but that You protect them from the evil one (Jn 17:11, 15, cf. 17:20).


This is the clear, simple, and straightforward explanation of the orthodox doctrine with respect to the five articles in dispute in the Netherlands, as well as the rejection of the errors by which the churches have for some time been disturbed. The Synod judges this explanation and rejection to be taken from the Word of God and to be in agreement with the confessions of the Reformed churches. Hence it clearly appears that some have acted very improperly and against all truth, fairness, and love in wishing to persuade the public of the following:

- The doctrine of the Reformed churches concerning predestination and related subjects, by its very character and tendency, turns the hearts of men away from all godliness and religion.

- It is an opiate for the flesh administered by the devil, and a stronghold of Satan, where he lies in wait for all, wounds multitudes, and mortally pierces many with the darts both of despair and false security.

- It makes God the author of sin, an unjust tyrant and hypocrite; and is nothing more than a renewed Stoicism, Manichaeism, Libertinism, and Mohammedanism.

- It leads to sinful carelessness, since it makes people believe that nothing can prevent the salvation of the elect, no matter how they live, and that, therefore, they may safely commit the most atrocious crimes. On the other hand, it would not in the least contribute to the salvation of the reprobate, even if they had performed all the works of the saints.

- The same doctrine teaches that God has predestined and created the greatest part of the world for eternal damnation by a mere arbitrary act of His will, without taking into account any sin.

- In the same manner in which election is the source and cause of faith and good works, reprobation is the cause of unbelief and ungodliness.

- Many innocent children of believers are torn from their mothers’ breasts and tyrannically thrown into hell, so that neither the blood of Christ nor their baptism nor the prayers of the church at their baptism can be of any help to them.

And there are many more teachings of this kind which the Reformed churches not only do not confess but even detest wholeheartedly.

Therefore, this Synod of Dort adjures, in the Name of the Lord, all who piously call upon our Saviour Jesus Christ not to judge the faith of the Reformed churches from the slander gathered from here and there. Neither are they to judge from personal statements of some ancient or modern teachers, often quoted in bad faith, or taken out of context and explained contrary to their meaning. But one ought to judge the faith of the Reformed churches from the public confessions of these churches themselves and from the present explanation of the orthodox doctrine, confirmed by the unanimous consent of the members of the entire Synod, one and all.

Moreover, the Synod warns the slanderers themselves to consider how severe a judgment of

God awaits those who bear false witness against so many churches and their confessions, disturb the consciences of the weak, and try to make many suspicious of the community of true believers.

Finally, this Synod exhorts all fellow ministers in the gospel of Christ to conduct themselves in a God-fearing and reverent manner when they deal with this doctrine in schools and churches. In teaching it, both in speaking and writing, they ought to seek the glory of God’s Name, the holiness of life, and the consolation of afflicted souls. Their thinking and speaking about this doctrine should be in agreement with Scripture according to the analogy of faith. And they must refrain from all those expressions which exceed the prescribed limits of the true meaning of the Holy Scriptures and which may provide shameless sophists with a good opportunity to scoff at the doctrine of the Reformed churches, or even to slander it.